Galwan in Kashmiri dialects means “ Strong Man” or a PEHALWAN (Wrestler). The river emanates at AKSAI Chin and flows East to west for 80 KMs through gorges of high mountains upto 17000 feet. It joins Shyok River in the Shyok Valley .
The Galwan River valley is named after Gulam Rasool Galwan of Leh , who, as a young boy, had accompanied British expeditions in Himalayas as a guide in the late 19 th Century. In one of the expeditions in 1899, led by Lt Col Charles Murray to Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, party lost its way due to bad weather. It was young Gulam Rasool Galwan , who found the way through this river valley. Thus, the river was named Galwan after him.
The Galwan River Valley was the flash point of 1962 war. In its 1959 claim line China had claimed the entire valley upto Shyok River confluence of Galwan River . The Valley became a flashpoint after China constructed a road between Xinjiang and Tibet, without India’s consent. The highway is now known as G219. After building the road, the Chinese lay a claim to the area, first in 1959.
The valley was defended by a company of Gorkha regiment of Indian Army in 1962 after China had constructed G 219 through Aksai Chin. And then suddenly this Gorkha locality, was surrounded by PLA on 06 July 1962 . The brave Gorkha troops remained cut off for three months . On 04 October 1962 , a Company of 5 JAT was sent to reinforce Gorkha Company by Indian Army . PLA fired on this company and killed 36 men of the JAT company . This was the start point of 1962 war .
Ever since 1962 , the Galwan valley has been under occupation of China . Protective Patrol – 14 is the only point in the mouth of Galwan valley that India controls.,it is on the LAC. The significance of this PP-14 is that it screens Chinese peep into Shyok River confluence with Galwan River . India has recently built a bridge over this confluence . Besides , a Link Road to PP-14 is being constructed from this bridge on the DSDBO Road, which is probably the bone of contention., See the Satellite images below.
It must be noted that LAC/ border with China is not marked. Galwan valley had been on the Eastern side of LAC , which is under Chinese control. And this has been the case for last 58 years . Galwan valley was lost during the Prime Ministership of Pundit Jawahar Lal Nehru . And it has been status quo since then .
Therefore, if Prime Minister Narender Modi says that China has not entered our side of LAC , he is right. Those who make noise that he has surrendered to China, have no idea of history and also the ground situation. Most of them forget what Nehru had said of Aksai Chin . To remind these forgetful minds , it is reiterated that he had surrendered it by saying : NOT A BLADE OF GROWS THERE. As of dste India has not surrendered its claim either on Aksai Chin or Galwan valley . It has only said the obvious reality that LAC since 1962 is well under Indian Control. And it includes PP-14.
Anyway , let me reiterate the significance of Galwan valley . As I have brought out earlier that India had constructed a road to DBO from Shyok and Darbuk. It is 255 KMs long and it has strategic importance of logistics support and also switching of forces to DBO . The point of issue is not this but the Link Road being built to PP-14. This is giving headache to China . Chinese think that India could launch an offensive towards Aksai Chin using Galwan Valley. PP-14 obstructs their direct view. Even China has built a road from Aksai Chin to this valley . Unconfirmed reports say China was building a dam over this River to flood the area in times of crisis .
The present crisis of 15 June 2020 was due to Chinese attempt to come upto PP-14. In fact they had created a tented camp below it around 10-12 June 2020. This camp was forcibly removed by India on 12/13 June 2020. Probably , Some fatalities were suffered by PLA in this action.. This perhaps had enraged the Chinese and again by 14 June 2020, they set up a fresh tented camp in 14 June 2020. This was detected by India on 15 June 2020 and it led to a deadly scuffle .
Tell tale marks of the true incident have now begun to appear in many accounts and they have opened up a Pandora’s box of many a lies . One has to just join the dots to visualise a true picture .
At the risk of repetition, it is a known fact that the bone of contention in the Galwan River valley and not the Darbuk – Shuyok – Dolat Beg OLDI ( DSDBO) Road and a bridge over the River Shyok and River Galwan confluence. To be frank,.it was the 12 14 KMs link from this Bridge to Protective Patrol Point 14 ( PP 14) . This point is at the LAC and under Indian Control since 1962. And like 1962 , it might become the flash point of another war , if China does not desist from its aggression. Perhaps , it does not realise that millions of cubic Acre feet of water had flown through Galwan River over the last 58 years. The year 2020 is not the year 1962.,
The significance of this Link Road is that it is a pincer aimed at the Galwan valley which could further be linked to a Chinese Road going to China’s Western Highway ( G219) passing through Aksai Chin . More important tactical advantage of PP 14 is that it screens Chinese overview of Shyok river and DSDBO Road . This was thecadvantage China wanted to deny to India. See the satellite image below . From the left edge of the bridge see a black streak of road going North . This is the link to PP 14. China had pitched a tented camp just few hundreds meters from PP 14.
On 06 June 2020 , an agreement was reached between the Chinese and Indian commanders (Major General Liyu Lin Commander af South Xinjiang Theatre of China and Lt Gen Harinder Singh of 14 Corps of India) to appropriately withdraw from present locations. India was to fall back 1.5 KM Westward and China by 2.5 KMs Eastward. The disengagement was to be completed by 15 June 2020.
Indian troops before pulling out wanted to ensure that Chinese too had pulled out . Information available from various accounts suggests that a patrol of 10 men under a Major from 4 Mahar / 16 Bihar was sent to ascertain this fact. They found the tent and burnt it . As they were returning they were surrounded and captured because Chinese were fully armed.
As soon as CO 16 Bihar , Col Santosh Babu learnt this , he rushed to the spot with 30 men to negotiate this. It is learnt that Chinese were on a higher ground and Indian patrol party was slowly climbing . We must know that at 15000 feet and so , the foot movement is very sluggish and slow . One can not rush and climb. One loses breath.,Also the track was so narrow that one could only move in a single file —- one man behind the other . This is why the road to PP-14,was constructed .,News is that job has been done .
As the Col Santosh ‘s party was some 60-100 meters from Chinese tent , they shouted at him to come alone if he wanted to negotiate about the patrol. . Col Santosh agreed and moved up with 2 Men . It may be noted that CO and his two men were unarmed, as is the norm in all such flag meetings . After reaching they had heated exchange for 4-5 minutes but Chinese gave in and agreed to withdraw. As soon as CO and his men turned , Chinese attacked him with nailed Clubs and all three fell badly wounded.
Seeing this rest of the CO party radioed it to the base and charged towards the Chinese . A hand to hand fight began. Indians had bayonets charged to rifles as an answer to Chinese nailed Clubs and Iron rods. It may be noted that Indians are well trained in Close combat and bayonet fighting .
In the meanwhile, Chinese reinforcements of 400 men joined but so did 200 men from 16 Bihar and adjoining units. Thus it became a joint operation of mixed troops also from Arty , Mahar and Punjab Regiments . Accounts now filtering out is that 16 Bihar men and other Indian troops had gone berserk . The Ghatak platoons (Commandos) of other battalions had joined in. Chinese were running halter smelter. The troops were 16 Bihar , 3 Punjab , 4 Mahar , 3 Med Regt and 181 Field Regt . It was a joint operation .
A Deccan Chronicle report of June 19, 2020 gives out a survivor participant’s account to say that minimum of 18 PLA soldiers necks were snapped —— they could be seen with their necks dangling from their bodies .
Another report from a JCO, as an eye witness of Arty, who came with the mortal remains of another Arty JCO to Patiala, corroborates the ferocity of all men charging the Chinese. . He gave the story of 16 Bihar men going berserk and blasting the life out of PLA soldiers . In this melee Chinese Buldozer caused a land slide and with it many PLA Soldiers went hundreds of feet into the icy Cold River Galwan and probably died.
On talking to OC Rear of 16 Bihar , it turned out that LT COL Maninder nagpal (2ic) ,Capt Ajun deshpande (3yrs), Capt Manangma (2yrs) of 16 Bihar were the most daring and they ferociously led their troops to avenge the death of their CO . Another soldier of Arty regiment , Sepoy Surinder Singh is stated to have killed 10 PLA Soldiers with his sword. He is a Amritdhari Sikh. He too got wounded in the head and is convalescing in Leh Hospital .
Though India declared 20 dead including Col Santosh Babu, but China too, suffered heavy casualties. China did not give out the number of casualties . Global Times claimed that it did not give out number of casualties because it did not want confrontational sentiments to escalate . This is a typical lie of a Communist regime .
Some Indian estimates put the Chinese casualties at 43. This they estimate from the helicopter trips coming to collect the casualties , which India allowed . But American report from intercepts suggests that there were 35 dead , possibly a few officers including Cols and Majors. This does not include the soldiers who went down in the river when land slide took place . Therefore some estimates say that China suffered between 128 to 150 casualties .
What about the Indian patrol of one officer and 10 men which was taken Prisoners by China on 15 June . A hush hush report in some papers like The Guardian and The Dawn of Pakistan suggested that they were released on 18 June 2020 in exchange of Chinese soldiers held by India . But it was unduly denied both by Indian Army and Chinese Foreign Ministry .
However there is an interesting twist in the tail. It is that on the said night , a patrol from 3 Medium Regiment of Indian Army, had captured a Chinese Colonel and few men who were running away from the scene of action where 16 Buhar soldiers had gone aggressive . The release of 10 men of Indian patrol is a give and take of this Chinese Col and his men. Chinese definitely learnt a lesson so as not to mess with Indian soldiers.
Finally , a word about three treaties India had signed with China on Border Management in 1993, 1996 and 2013 which prohibits the use of fire arms on the border. This is a joke . There are more casualties due to physical fights with swords , nailed bats and iron rods which both sides carry . India should free its soldiers of such restrictions .
Indians happily stay alive ; some do their business , some sit in the Parliament and assemblies , most Chit chat peacefully on social media platforms but some do verbal aerobatics with their lungs in TV rooms . All this is possible because the soldiers play with their lives on the borders . Galwan River episode must shake their conscience . It is sacrifice of the soldiers which make the NETAS & COMMENTATORS safe . A grateful nation must honour the Galwan Heroes of Night 15/16 June. Their raw courage displayed against a wellPrepared enemy must rule the nations soul !i