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Tipu Sultan, Hydroxychloroquine – Gin & Tonic.


Hydroxychloroquine has taken the world by storm. 
Every country, affected by COVID19, is requesting India for its supply.
But, why and how is this chemical composition so deeply entrenched in India. Well, there is an interesting history behind it.
It all began with Tipu Sultan’s defeat. In 1799, when Tipu was defeated by the British, the whole of Mysore Kingdom with Srirangapatnam as Tipu’s capital, came under British control. For the next few days, the British soldiers had a great time celebrating their victory,  but within weeks, many started feeling sick due to Malaria, because Srirangapatnam was largely a marshy area with severe mosquito problem.
The local Indian population had over the centuries, developed self immunity, and also all the spicy food habits helped to an extent. Whereas the British soldiers and officers who were suddenly exposed to harsh Indian conditions, started bearing the brunt. 
To quickly overcome the mosquito menace, the British Army immediately shifted their station from Srirangapatnam to Bangalore–establishing the Bangalore Cantonment region.But the malaria problem still persisted because Bangalore was also no exception to mosquitoes. 
Around the same time, European scientists had discovered a chemical composition called “Quinine” which could be used to treat malaria, and was slowly gaining prominence, but it was yet to be extensively tested at large scale. This malaria crisis among British Army came at an opportune time, and thus Quinine was imported in bulk by the Army and distributed to all their soldiers, who were instructed to take regular dosages so that they could build immunity.
But there was a small problem. Although sick soldiers quickly recovered, many more soldiers who were exposed to harsh conditions of tropical India continued to become sick, because it was later found that they were not taking dosages of Quinine. Why? Because it was very bitter!! So, by avoiding the bitter Quinine, British soldiers stationed in India were lagging behind on their immunity, thereby making themselves vulnerable to Malaria in the tropical regions of India. 
That’s when all the top British officers and scientists started experimenting ways to persuade their soldiers to strictly take these dosages, and during their experiments,  they found that the bitter Quinine mixed with Juniper based liquor, actually turned somewhat into a sweet flavor. That’s because the molecular structure of the final solution was such that it would almost completely curtail the bitterness of Quinine. 
That juniper based liquor was Gin. And the Gin mixed with Quinine was called “Gin & Tonic”, which immediately became an instant hit among British soldiers. 
The same British soldiers who were ready to even risk their lives but couldn’t stand the bitterness of Quinine,  started swearing by it daily when they mixed it with Gin. In fact, the Army even started issuing few bottles of Gin along with “tonic water” (Quinine) as part of their monthly ration, so that soldiers could themselves prepare Gin & Tonic and consume them everyday to build immunity. 
To cater to the growing demand of gin & other forms of liquor among British soldiers, the British East India company built several local breweries in and around Bengaluru, which could then be transported to all other parts of India. And that’s how, due to innumerable breweries and liquor distillation factories, Bengaluru had already become the pub capital of India way back during British times itself.  Eventually, most of these breweries were purchased from British organizations after Indian independence, by none other than Vittal Mallya (Vijay Mallya’s father), who then led the consortium under the group named United Breweries headquartered in Bengaluru. 
Coming back to the topic, that’s how Gin & Tonic became a popular cocktail and is still a popular drink even today. The Quinine, which was called Tonic (without gin), was widely prescribed by Doctors as well, for patients who needed cure for fever or any infection. Whenever someone in a typical Indian village fell sick, the most common advice was “Visit the doctor and get some tonic”. 
Over time, the tonic word was so overused that  became a reference to any medicine in general. So, that’s how the word “Tonic”, became a colloquial word  for “Western medicine” in India. 
Over the years, Quinine was developed further into many of its variants and derivatives and widely prescribed by Indian doctors. 
One such descendent of Quinine, called Hydroxychloroquine–was developed in India, eventually became the standardized cure for malaria because it has relatively lesser side effects compared to its predecessors, and is now suddenly the most sought after drug in the world today. 
And that’s how, a simple peek into the history of Hydroxychloroquine takes us all the way back to Tipu’s defeat, mosquito menace, liquor rationing, colorful cocktails, tonics and medicinal cures.
( Mrityunjoy Chatterji has worked as journalist and now is a professor of journalism at Adamas University) 

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1 Comment
  1. Sabya sachi says

    The origin of this story is set in kolkata not srirangapatnam….as tipus capital is surrounded by fast flowing rivers and not swamp unlike kolkata. Early east india company clerks and soldiers would mostly die of malaria in the newly established settlements of north kolkata which were reclaimed from marshland. The mortality rate was 40% among the newly arrived….and with them came this bitter chloroquin originally discovered by natives of south america as an anti malarial drug and then the rest is history or rather a case of drunken brawl under the influence of this chloroquin mixed with sweet water drunk as a deterant untill someone in fort william decided to mix gin which was a slodier’s and horse’s drink with this qunine infused syrup water (aptly called tonic) and then the uppity culture drink was born. Also note that malaria was so rampant in kolkata that ronald ross experimented in kolkata and discovered the cause for it….the pesky mosquito.

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